Persian Civilization

Ancient civilizations of the world have been spread in different areas, and according to their geographical territory, they have unique properties. Their lifestyle has been deeply affected by the traditions and beliefs of these civilizations. Since the civilization of China which still has features of a peasant community, till the civilization of Greece that modern western urbanization is a branch of it.


However, in considering ethnic diversity and variety of local culture, maybe it is not exaggerating if we say the civilization of Iranian plateau is unique because this community is formed based on the coexistence of different ethnics.

Since the time that Elam was part of the early urbanization in history, until now that the majority of Iranian people are urbanized, the keyword for comprehending this country has been “culture.”

Iranian Culture

Culture is the social behaviors and norms found in human societies. In other word, people live with culture. Before the Aryan migration to the Iranian plateau, people who lived in this country had their own culture, religion, and rituals, and the influence of Mithraism in religious beliefs of people was evident.

The main cultural elements that we can consider as the bases of Iranian culture consist:

  1.  Persian language and its different dialects
  2.  National celebrations like Nowruz, Yalda night and Lunisolar calendar
  3.  Islam and especially branch of Shia
  4.  Eulogize the philosophy and wisdom
  5.  Iranian art like poem, literature, music, Persian and Islamic architecture, Persian foods and dresses
  6. Local and ethnic cultures
  7. Persian art including Persian poetry and Persian literature, Persian music, Iranian and Islamic architecture, Persian cuisine, Iranian costume.


If we consider the culture as the infrastructure of society, civilization is its superstructure. Therefore, everything remained of civilization over centuries, such as architecture, book, handicrafts, and antiquities, are of high significance because they can reveal different aspects of a civilization.

Iranian civilization is an ancient one which lived in all these years on the bases of multi ethnicity culture and identity of races and freedom of thoughts; so, it is natural to see the effects of other civilizations and a variety of ethnics in it.

According to extensive studies on the civilizations in Iranian plateau, we can set historical periods:

Before Aryan

Aryan civilization

After Islam

Before Aryan's civilization

There is no exact information about this period because there was no historiography in this time, and the writing was not invented yet.The oldest civilization dating back to Assyrian period was living in an area near to Mashhad, and it was for Old Stone Age.

But certainly, the civilization of Elam was the first civilization that had the writing and urbanization, and from the architecture and handicrafts that remained of this civilization,we can conclude that this civilization had a central government and administrative force.Iran is the first country in the history where the metal has been extracted from the mine and the oldest extracted mineral was copper, and there are still big mines of copper in this territory.

Aryan civilization

Aryan people were the immigrants from the north of contemporary Russia that migrate to the south. They migrate to India, Iranian Plateau and Europe and each one of them built a new civilization in that era. The Medes were the first Aryan people who organized a central government and founded bureaucracy and administrative policy.

Remained cities of this civilization are Noushijan Tappe, Malayer and Ecbatana are, and Ecbatana is the first model of urbanization on the rock in the world.

After the Medes, the Achaemenid dynasty took power; they were Persians. They succeeded to found a great empire which was extended from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east.

The architecture of Perspolis, Shush, and Pasargadae shows us trace of an authoritarian government and an advanced civilization which was ruled by well-known emperors like Cyrus the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes

The Achaemenid dynasty was extinct by Alexander the Macedonian, and when he passed away, the Seleucid Empire emerged, which were alexander’s successors, and it introduced the elements of Greek culture into Iranian culture. The architecture of the temple of Anahita in Kangavar is for this period.

Then, the Parthian took power. There is nothing much left from their dynasty, but when we study on handcrafts of this period, it can be concluded that they went back to the ancient Iranian culture.

And Sasanian Empire was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Sasanian recognized the Zoroastrianism as official religion of Iran and founded their civilization based on religious beliefs. Taq-e Bostan is an example of Sasanian’s architecture.


When Arabs attacked Iran, Most of the Iranian people convert their religion to Islam, and a new era began; a rich multi-culture civilization created that we can see its influence in science, art, and policy of this period.

In a different period like Abbasid Caliphate, Safavid dynasty, Buyid dynasty, Seljuq dynasty, and Khwarazmian dynasty the Art noticeably improved and unique science book was written, and all of them prove the intellectual and scientific maturity of this multi-culture civilization.

Safavid dynasty was the first empire after Islam that established the Twelver school of Shia Islam as the official religion of the empire. Historic sites and buildings like the Shah Mosque and Imam Reza shrine prove the cultural conversion of this dynasty to Shia Islam.

The dome of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is one of the architectural masterpieces of Iranian architecture that was built during the Safavid Empire.

Rituals and Traditions

If we want to give a perspective on Iranian rituals and traditions, we should direct your attention to the importance of respect to wisdom and nature in Iran. Iranian people always cherished nature.


Nowruz is one of the greatest Iranian traditions that start at the beginning of spring. It is celebrated with Haft-Sin which is a tablecloth including the seven signs of nature that all of them begin with “s” in Farsi such as Apple (Sib), garlic(Sir), Sumac(Somagh), green grass (Sabze), vinegar (Serke), Russian Olive (Senjed) and Hyacinth (Symbol). Families gather together around Haft-Sin and celebrate the arrival of spring.

Yalda Night

The second most significant tradition in Iran is the Yalda Night or Shab-e Yalda, which is roughly coincident with the Christian Christmas. Its philosophy is to honor the longest night of the year, which promises to end the fall and cold, and is in some way a symbol of the birth of the sun, and has remained a relic of Mithraism.

yalda night
yalda night Tradition

Marriage Traditions

There are some traditions like proposal, engagement, dowry, hana’bandan, and initiation that we can’t eliminate from an Iranian marriage.  

This ceremony in an official announces about tow person who wants to live together and Iranian people celebrate their new life and accompany them to their new house with music and dance.

Lori Marriage
Torkaman Marriage
Kurdi Marriage 2

Traditional Iranian Meals

Traditional Iranian foods include a wide range due to the diversity of vegetation and the existence of different types of meats in the Iranian plateau. Many varieties of stews and grilled foods are common in different ethnic groups of Iran. Each one has its unique color due to the type of spices used in the cooking process. Here are some of these popular foods.

Chelow kebab

chelow Kabab

Most of our foods contain chicken or beef. Iranian kababs are the most well-known traditional dishes all over the world. Kabab koobideh is one of Iranians and tourists’ favorites. This kabab is served with pepper, grilled tomato, vegetables, fresh Doogh, and saffron rice. Though sometimes it is served with hot Sangak (triangular Iranian whole wheat leavened flatbread) as well.

Jujeh kebab

Juje Kabab

One of the most delicious Iranian kababs is Jujeh kabab which is served with Doogh, grilled tomato, and saffron rice.

Ghormeh sabzi

Ghorme Sabzi

Ghormeh sabzi is one of the most popular Persian stews that is the first priority of many Iranians when it comes to choosing the top ten favorite Persian foods. The ingredients of Ghormeh sabzi are fresh vegetables, dried lemon, peas, and lamb. The secret behind its lovely taste is its way of cooking. The longer it cooks on a low flame, the tastier it gets. This stew is also attractive for many foreigners.

Khoresh-e Fesenjān


“Yay! Fesenjān” is the most repeated dialogue between Iranians when they smell the food. But be sure that it will be your usual talk after you try it for the first time. The ingredients of Fesenjān are ground walnuts, pomegranate paste, and chicken or meatballs. This stew also has to be cooked on a low flame for hours to give you the desired taste. The methods of cooking this food are different in accordance with geographical regions. In some places, sour pomegranate paste is used and in the other parts, people prefer to add sugar in it and make it sweet.

Khoresh-e Gheimeh

Another exciting Iranian stew is Gheimeh that is made with sliced potatoes or eggplant. The first method of cooking results in “Gheimehye Sibzamini” and the second in “Gheimehye Bademjan”. Also, the other ingredients of this stew are split peas, dried lemon and small pieces of meat.

Khoresh-e Bademjan

Koresh Bademjan

Eggplant (in Persian: Bademjan) is the most used ingredient of Iranian traditional foods. One of the most favorite Persian meals is Khoresh-e Bademjan is made of sliced meat that is fried with spices and later fried eggplants added to that. This stew is served with rice or sometimes bread.

Zereshk Polo

Zereshk Polo

One of the most famous Iranian foods in the world is Zereshk polo with chicken. This is made of Barberry, rice, and chicken and it has a nice and charming presentation.

Albaloo polo

Albaloo Polo is one of the difficult foods in terms of cooking and not everyone can cook it well. Since Albaloo Polo has a colorful look, they serve it at parties and ceremonies. They cook it with red meat (chicken boletus) and chicken meat.

Baghali Polo

Baghali polo with meat is one of the luxurious and most favorite Persian foods.

Loobia polo

Loobia Polo

Loobia polo is another popular Iranian cuisines that are served in a special way. Loobia polo is usually served with Scorched rice or potatoes, Shirazi Salad, vegetable and yogurt, which is a very tasty mixture. To make Loobia polo, combine green chopped beans with meat, onions, tomato sauce, and various spices. And put it on heat to get ready.



Dolmeh is the most famous cuisines of east and west Azerbaijan that nowadays is made in all over Iran. Dolmeh has different types that are known as Grape leaves Dolmeh, Tomato Dolmeh, Eggplant Dolmeh, and Bell pepper Dolmeh. However, the first type has more fans and many of the Iranians cook it in the spring with tasty fresh grape leaves.

Koofteh Tabrizi

Koofte Tabrizi

As the name shows, the origin of this cuisine is Tabriz city. However, it has many different types but the tastiest one is Koofteh Tabrizi. Koofteh Tabrizi is made of meat, split peas and vegetables. Inside of each Koofteh (which is round shape like a ball) is filled with boiled eggs, plum, walnut, fried onion, and barberries.



Dolme is the most famous cuisines of east and west Azerbaijan that nowadays is made in all over Iran. Dolmeh has different types that are known as Grape leaves Dolmeh, Tomato Dolmeh, Eggplant Dolmeh, and Bell pepper Dolmeh. However, the first type has more fans and many of the Iranians cook it in the spring with tasty fresh grape leaves.

Ash Reshte


Dolme is the most famous cuisines of east and west Azerbaijan that nowadays is made in all over Iran. Dolmeh has different types that are known as Grape leaves Dolmeh, Tomato Dolmeh, Eggplant Dolmeh, and Bell pepper Dolmeh. However, the first type has more fans and many of the Iranians cook it in the spring with tasty fresh grape leaves.


Tah Chin

Tah-chin is tasty food with a tempting presentation. Because of its appearance, foreign tourists call it “Iranian cake”. Tah-chin is made in plain or with chicken, beef or eggplant. The most well-known type of Tah-chin is the one made with chicken.

Golestan Palace

Golestan Palace with its spectacular environment is a place to relax for hours and enjoy its beauty. The existence of a swimming pool and fountain add a special sense to the atmosphere. But the most attractive part of this palace is its walls. The walls which are tiled in different designs and colors are very charming for all visitors. All over this magnificent environment, there are buildings and palaces that once inhabited by kings and their closest bodies, and today they host visitors and travelers.


The history of Golestan Palace dates back to Shāh Abbās era. But when Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, the founder of the Qajar Dynasty, gained the power more attention was paid to this collection. Agha Mohammad Khan’s coronation in Tehran has increased the importance of the Golestan Royal Palace and later on, during the Convent of the Fath-Ali Shah Qajar, it developed. At the time of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Golestan Palace has undergone major changes due to his long-standing rule and his trips to Europe.


Today Golestan Palace is located in the Arg Square, near Tehran Bazaar also The complex has several buildings and palaces. Golestan Complex, positioning near one of the busy neighborhoods of Tehran, is a peaceful and flourishing environment where the buildings and their architecture take you from the heart of today’s Tehran to the era of the Qajar kings.

Different segments of Golestan palace

Considering the history of Golestan Palace; it might be interesting for you to visit the oldest building in this complex; also Eyvane Takhte Marmar; is the oldest building in Golestan Palace; which it’s construction dates back to Karim Khan Zand’s era; Eyvane Takhte Marmar is the porch where the king visits the visitors; meeting with people and hearing their requests and problems; Plaster works, masonry; Khatam Kari; mirror work; wood carvings; and Moshabak Kari have given a special glory to this porch.

khalvat karimkhani

In the porch, there is a marble bed made with the order of Fath Ali Shah. The design of the bed was inspired by the idea of the throne of Solomon so that from every quadrant that you look at it, you can see 3 demons and 6 angels that carry it. Some poems also engraved on the bed about Fath Ali Shah’s blessing and exhortation.

In the northwest of the Golestan Palace; an indoor courtyard is located in the form of a veranda that is known as Khalvat Karimkhani; In the middle of this part of the Golestan complex; there is a small pool that in the past the water of king’s aqueduct came out of it and flowed into royal gardens; Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar; buried the remnants of Karim Khan Zand’s dead body under the stairs of the building to kick off his body every time he crossed the stairs; Reza Khan removed the bones; transferred them to Qom. In this part; the stone throne of Nasreddin Shah and Fath Ali Shah marble bed is placed .


shams ol-emareh

On the eastern side of the Golestan complex also a very famous building is glowing, which is called as Shams-ol-Emareh which Some believe that Shamsol Emareh is the oldest symbol of Tehran. The construction of this structure was the result of Naser al-Din Shah’s interest in high-rise buildings. The building was constructed with the idea that the king could watch the landscape of Tehran and his surrounding view. One of the interesting works kept in this building is Naser al-Din Shah’s bloody chair. Naser al-Din Shah was assassinated in 1896, his wounded body was placed on the chair and with a napkin on his wound. Today, this chair is stored in Shamsol Emareh and blood spots on it are evident.

Ferdows Garden ;with an area of 2000 square meters and a mansion; with one thousand square meters of space is located in the south of Tajrish square at Valiasr Street ;The mansion inside the garden owns lots of beautiful decorations and plasterworks; At the entrance of this garden bronze statues of Sheikh-e Eshragh and Ibn al-Haytham are visible.

Cinema Museum

Cinema museum began it’s activity in 1998; However; after the summer of 2009; it moved to its current location; at Ferdows Garden; The main objective of this museum; is to collect and preserve the legacies of Persian cinema; Until now it hosts the richest; and most valuable treasures of photographs; historical documents; correspondence and contracts; and cinema publications.

Grand Bazaar, Tehran

Grand Bazaar of Tehran is known as the heart of the economy in Iran; Tehran bazaar is a crowded shopping center; which dates back to many years ago; According to the reports; the original building of this market dates back to Shah Tahmasp I; This market has undergone many changes during the Qajar period as Tehran becomes the capital of Iran.

The Grand Bazaar has been decorated with winding corridors; traditional veneers; and arcs; Considering the market has undergone various changes in the process of construction; the architecture of the building is not related to a certain period of time; and a variety of architectural arts can be seen in the historical parts of the building.

About Bazaar

When you visit the old parts of the Tehran Grand Bazaar; you will probably think that the building; bricks; cellars; materials on the walls and ceiling of the market; has remained steady for many years and thousands of people have crossed them every day; Tehran Grand Bazaar as a historical monument differs from; other monuments and structures; The palace-museums and other samples despite their relatively long life; span have seen a few people and only a handful of residents; But the Grand Bazaar was always beside the people; Many of the shop keepers from Safavid dynasty until now have been active in this market; In the social movements; such as the Persian Constitutional Revolution; Grand Bazaar of Tehran was alongside people; These brick walls; which some of them are worn today; have seen the pleasures and sorrows of the people; This permanent traffic in the market has made this monument a great attraction.

grand bazaar

Different segments of this Bazaar are as follows:

Masjed Jame: The building has been there for more than two centuries; and has been registered in the year 1984.

grand bazaar

Chahar suq-e-Bozorg: this is; in fact; the intersection of two main orders; This section is located near Masjed Jame; The plasterworks of Chaharsuq-e-Bozorg are very attractive and unique.

Chahar suq-e-Bozorg

Hajeb Ol-Dowleh Market: This segment is one of the most beautiful parts of the market; A variety of colors in this division will entice any visitor.

hajeb-ol dowleh

Changes about Grand Bazaar

Some of the segments of this market like Bazaar-e Amir; Portal of Chaharsuq-e-Bozorg and some parts of Masjed Jame still retain their old form; Meanwhile; Charsoogh-e Bozorg with its octagonal architecture is one of the oldest segments of this market; The interior of this octagon is designed with plasterwork and has a circular dome.

Best Restaurants in Tehran

Given the diversity of Tehran restaurants and their differences in price, service and cooking styles, finding the best option is a bit difficult, but we try to introduce the best and most successful restaurants in this city.

Since about 100 years ago, many restaurants have been established and developed in different parts of Tehran. This includes iranian and european restaurants, each with their own customers. With the burgeon of these restaurants, their diversity has been increasing too.

Tehran restaurants can be divided into several categories

Iranian restaurants are serving Persian cuisine, whether they have traditional decoration or not

Restaurants serving international dishes

International dishes

Fast food restaurants and food courts

fast Food

Restaurants that are a combination of these three

all restaurants

Moslem Restaurants

This restaurant is known as one of the best restaurants in Tehran for all Iranians who have passed by Tehran Bazaar. Moslem Restaurant is located in the Grand Bazaar in Panzdah-e-Khordad St. You can get there using the subway and getting off at Panzdah-e-Khordad station then just walk about 5 to 10 minutes to there. the long queue in front of Moslem at lunchtime is the proof of popularity and the quality of the food which is served in there. According to the orders given by the customers, it can be seen that the most popular dish of Moslem is Tah-chin. The dishes in Moslem are that full that two people can easily get stuffed with one of them. Because of the huge crowd coming to have their lunch there, the service of the restaurant has some problems but the quality of the food is worth to ignoring them.

Tehran Been

Tehran Been restaurant is an international restaurant located in the penthouse of Erfan Tower in Sa’adatabad , which has a beautiful and unique atmosphere. It is a great place to host your guests because the interior design of TehranBeen restaurant and cafe attracts the attention of each customer. Each section of this restaurant with special and beautiful
pieces of furniture, unique and charming Chandeliers with gorgeous interior design, reflects the value and respect that is given to dear guests so that everyone could choose a table based on their own taste. But the beauty of this restaurant does not end here. The good news for those who pay attention to the landscape of a restaurant or café is that the north, south, west, and east of Tehran are visible from the inside of this restaurant and it can definitely be said that you will enjoy this landscape. The specialty of TehranBeen Restaurant is to hold luxury celebrations, parties, and conferences. For reservations, you can visit the restaurant’s online website.

The Wooden Road Food Court

You can see one of the most iconic interior designs in this restaurant. A food court in a semi-open space with lovely decoration but a busy environment that can be noticed from a note under each table mentioning “the maximum time for using a table is one hour”. But beautiful nature, fresh air of the locality, diversity of the food, and proximity to Ab-o-Atash Park won’t allow you to ignore this restaurant.

The website of this food court mentioned that “In 2013, Rahechoobi Company has designed and established the wooden road restaurants in Tehran. As a result of this effort, the brands and food industry leaders gathered in one place to provide a memorable moment for you and your respectable family”.

Address: Tehran, Haghani Hwy, Near Vanak square, Didar Jonoobi st, The Wooden Road Food Court

Naderi Café

Book readers and those who are interested in the history of contemporary Iranian literature and art have certainly heard the name of this cafe. This restaurant which is located in the heart of the capital was a place for holding the gatherings of famous poets, authors, and intellectuals such as Sadegh Hedayat, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, Ahmad Fardid, and Simin Daneshvar.
This cafe, stablished in the year 1928 by an Armenian named Khachik Madicans, was a heavenly gateway to new foods such as Beef Stroganoff and Bieffek. Also, Café Glace, Chateaubriand, different types of ice creams, French Coffee and Turkish coffee served there.
In the night time,mostly the dancing ceremony was held in the backyard of the cafe, and the smoke of fags filled the space; the cafe and hotel Naderi was named as one of the oldest cafes in Tehran. The Naderi Café is located in the eastern side of the Hafez Bridge in Naderi Street (Jomhouri Street) and has a hotel on it.

The cafe and hotel Naderi are one of the oldest cafes in Tehran. The Naderi Café is located in the eastern side of the Hafez Bridge in Naderi Street (Jomhouri Street) and has a hotel on it.

Daloon Deraaz Restaurant

It has been proved that Music has a significant impact on digestibility of food and Daloon Deraz restaurant provides live music with a full catering collection for dinner which includes main food, salads, dessert, tea, sweets, and fruits.
It is written on the website of this restaurant that “This restaurant with its pleasant atmosphere and beautiful architecture has become a place for young people and families of Iranians. The Daloon Deraz restaurant is a combination of the traditional architecture illustrated from the baths of Kashan, and is a work of the master of traditional architecture, professor Shirbaf (Isfahan) and was renovated from 1996 to 1997.

Senso Italian Restaurant

Talking about the restaurants without mentioning an Italian restaurant is impossible. If you pass by East Ferdows Boulevard in the night time, you probably see a long queue of Senso customers. These queues are there throughout the week and they show the loyalty of staff to the constant customers of Senso who are accustomed to the high-quality foods and appropriate service of it.
The expertise of an Italian chef and stylish design of Senso made it as one of the most popular Italian restaurants in Tehran.
Pizza and pasta as the main foods Senso are the most popular dishes among its customers.

Perperook fast food

It is one of the most popular fast food restaurants in Tehran and has numerous branches throughout the capital. You can enjoy the diversity and quality of fast foods which are served in this restaurant. Quick and appropriate service of Perperook fast food restaurant will not keep you waiting for your food.

Iran is a Cheap Destination for Traveling

Traditional Iranian foods include a wide range due to the diversity of vegetation and the existence of different types of meats in the Iranian plateau. Many varieties of stews and grilled foods are common in different ethnic groups of Iran. Each one has its unique color due to the type of spices used in the cooking process. Here are some of these popular foods.

However the currency exchange value in Iran experiences a lot of fluctuations but the price of goods and services is somehow stable. The price tag of a bottle of water (1.5 liters) for example is around 2500 Tomans in Iran so you can purchase it with only $0.2. In the following column you can find the approximate cost of your expenses in Iran which clearly shows the cheapness of goods and services.

ProductPrice in DollarsProductPrice in Dollars
Bread0.3A bottle of water (1.5 liters) 0.2
Cold Food 0.9 Chips and Snacks0.4
Iranian cheese (300 grams) 0.3 Carbonated Drink (330 mL) 0.3
A packet of cigarette2.3 Milk (1 liter) 0.8
A set of clothes (approximately) 23 Toiletries (approximately) 0.9

Product Price in Dollars Product Price in Dollars
A cold drink at cafe 1.2 - 2 Breakfast at cafe 0.8 - 2.8
Snacks at cafe 1.2-3.8 A hot drink at cafe 1.2-2
A traditional meal in a luxury restaurant 2.7-9.2 A traditional meal in an average restaurant 1.2-2
Fast food in a luxury restaurant 3-4.6 A vegetarian meal 1.7-4
Fast food in an average restaurant 1.2-2.3

Product Price in Dollars ProductPrice in Dollars
Cost of voice call (per 10 minutes) 0.07 cost of the internet (per gigabyte) 0.5
Purchase of sim card 2.3

Product Price in Dollars Product Price in Dollars
Urban taxi (Each kilometer) 11.7Traveling by VIP bus (Tehran-Shiraz) 3.1
Metro 0.4 Traveling by airplane (Tehran-Shiraz) 34.6
Cheap hotel (each night for a double bedroom) 0.1Visiting a museum 1.3-5
Resort rooms (Isfahan) 40-50 Urban bus 0.06
Traveling by train (Tehran- Shiraz) 9.2luxury hotel (each night for a double bedroom) 170-230

Iran is Safe

Traditional Iranian foods include a wide range due to the diversity of vegetation and the existence of different types of meats in the Iranian plateau. Many varieties of stews and grilled foods are common in different ethnic groups of Iran. Each one has its unique color due to the type of spices used in the cooking process. Here are some of these popular foods.

Terrorist threats are another factor involved in disrupting the security of a nation. Even the tourism industry of many developed countries such as France, which is among the top ten countries in this matter, are threatened by terrorist attacks. However, given the intense ethical and religious conflicts going on in the Middle East, Iran is one of the countries that experienced a very less number of terrorist attacks.

The main reasons behind the fact that Iran is Safe, in comparison with other countries in the Middle East, are as follows:

Political and Social Stability

Iran is one of the few countries in the Middle East that take advantage of democracy. In Iran, free elections are held, and the people elect their representatives in parliament, the president and other government officials by direct vote. This fact will increase the level of social satisfaction, and political conflicts will not turn into chaos.

Modern security structures

Forbes magazine, in its annual report about the tourism industry, determines Iran as one of the safest countries for women and solo traveling. In terms of the airports’ security structures and systems, custom duties and roads, Iran is among the world’s advanced countries. This country takes huge advantage of its skilled security forces that defend its security at all times. The security systems in freeways as well as urban and rural areas have full control over the security of the people and prevent a social crisis.

Homogeneous social texture despite ethnic differences

Iran is one of the most diversified countries in the world in terms of ethnic and racial texture, and unique culture and customs can be seen in each corner of this region. However, these differences never created tensions and controversy and have contributed positively to empathy and social interaction.

Social and cultural awareness

In recent studies, Iran had the most scientific growth in the world, and the proportion of educated people in the whole country is very high. As a result, there is a high level of cultural and social awareness of Iranian society. In addition to having modern urban structures and services, the Iranian people have great cultural tolerance and diversity of culture and viewpoints have led to homogeneous social behavior.

The most popular Iranian handicrafts

Iranian handicrafts are very popular in all over the world due to their diversity and unique quality. For that matter, some of the foreign exchange income of Iran comes from selling and exporting these handicrafts. The share of handicrafts in the export section shows that not only tourism boosts the economy of the country but also promotes Iranian culture. In this article, we will introduce the most famous Iranian noble arts. Traditional jewels, glass, pottery, ceramics, handmade carpets and kilim, ziloo, wooden and copper handicrafts are among these popular handicrafts.

1-Handmade carpet and kilim

Undoubtedly, our most well-known Iranian products are handmade carpets. In the world, every nation is recognized by a symbol, and we Iranians have our beautiful carpets as our symbol. Experts around the globe believe that Persian carpet has the best quality, and historians are sure that the antiquity of this art dates back to the Safavid period. Silk carpet of Isfahan is among the most beloved products around the world. Handmade carpets have different varieties, and each one of them has its unique design, texture, and dimensions. Various types of expensive rugs and carpets, kilims, ziloos and other types of handmade carpets are exported to foreign countries with hefty price tags. Persian carpets are designed with inspiration from myths and philosophical concepts.  Handmade carpet has many advantages: it has attractive design and colors, contains natural fibers, does not cause respiratory problems, lacks static electricity, and has a very long lifespan and durability.

Persian Handmade Carpet

2-Glass and copper utensils

These products also have a significant share of foreign exports. The art of glass forming, which is very attractive, is considered as one of the oldest arts of humankind and in Iran also dates back to million years ago. Archaeologists have found the first glass containers in the Middle East which date back to the Parthian and Sassanian period. Glassblowing industry in Iran uses the techniques of blowing in the template or free blowing.

copper Utensils

Copper workings are among the oldest handicrafts of Iran, and many of its examples can be found in Iranian museums. Copper working in the country dates back to at least five thousand years ago, and it is more likely that the first metal discovered by humankind is copper and the first coppersmiths also were Iranians. Among the major centers of this art are Kashan, Isfahan, Kerman, Zanjan, and Shiraz. And in many cities such as Isfahan, there is a market called “Bazar-e mesgarha” or coppersmiths’ bazar, which is dedicated to the artists of this field. Copper has many advantages including disinfecting the food and causing bacteria to die

coppersmiths’ bazar

3-Pottery and ceramics

Pottery usually refers to the type of the containers which are made out of clay and the most well-known pottery product is clay jar. This art has many fans around the world and has a considerable share in exports of Iranians. Pottery making dates back to thousand years ago and is considered to be the first industry of human being. The earliest forms of clay pots have been found in the city of Shush.


Ceramic and mosaic making also plays an important role in Iranian handicrafts. The art of mosaic making or “Moaragh Kari” refers to the art artist in small tiles with different designs and colors, matching them together to make big pieces of ceramics and finally using them for the exterior design of the walls. Yazd, Isfahan, and Ardebil are the most famous cities for this art.

Ceramic Plate

4-Wooden Art

“Khatam Kari” and “Moaragh Kari” are the titles of different Persian arts performed on pieces of wood. These types of products also are exporting to foreign countries and have lots of fans for their beautiful and eye-catching designs.

Among the other traditional handicrafts are traditional decorative fabrics and traditional jewelry that you can enjoy the beauty of each one of them

khatam Kari

Here are some other example of magnificent Iranian handicrafts:


Copper Plate


Hasir Bafi

Iran is an attractive destination for every kind of tourists due to its unique diversity of weather and human traits. There are a variety of tourist destinations in Iran. The holy cities such as Mashhad, Shiraz, and Qom, the attractions of the Caspian Sea in the northern part of Iran, the Persian Gulf in the south, and the desert of middle regions are among of these attractions. Here are some of the most important places to visit in Iran.


Tehran, as the capital of the country and the most famous city in Iran, is the first city which is an attractive destination for foreign tourists, the surrounding townships of Tehran have also made the city more interesting. The most important tourist attractions of Tehran include Milad Tower, Azadi Tower, Tehran Zoo, Golestan Palace, Sa’adabad Palace, Grand Market, Shrine of Imam Zadeh Saleh, etc. Tehran with its population which is about 11 million people own 40 percent of the country’s economy.


When we talk about tourist destinations in Iran, we cannot deny the role of Mashhad as a holy city. Mashhad holds the title of the most tourist attractive and luxurious city in Iran. The reason is apparent: the shrine of Imam Reza.

According to the reports and statistics, more than 30 million Iranians and 5 million foreign tourists, most of whom are Arab citizens, travel to Mashhad each year. Through the statistics, in the Nowruz holidays of each year reaches its peak and crosses the 12 million mark.

Apart from the existence of the Imam Reza Shrine which has become Iranian pilgrimage pole, Mashhad has other attractions for travelers. For example, if you want to go to the most equipped water parks, you can find it in this city, or if you desire to experience nightlife in one of the cities in Iran, it will be possible to have it around the shrine.

The presence of other attractions such as museums, urban and suburban parks, and the magnificent tombs of Ferdowsi and Nadir Shah Afshar, as well as observing the culture and lifestyle of people in Mashhad, can also be the motivation to travel to Mashhad.


Yazd is a distinct city which, despite the unbearable heat, has many hospitable residents that will double the pleasure of your travel. Yazd province is located 270 km south-east of Isfahan, and those who are interested in the Iranian introspective architecture can enjoy the beautiful and historical monuments of the city for hours. The most interesting sites in Yazd are Yazd Mosque, Dolatabad Garden, Lari’s House, Eskandar Prison.

Mazandaran and Gilan

For many Iranians, traveling means going to the north. Gilan province is one of the most visited places in Iran due to the nature of its greenery, the existence of forest areas, and the pleasant climate of Caspian Sea which most of its cities have enjoyed from it. The northern part of Iran which includes two provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran is so popular among Iranians that most of them travel to that region at the time of their holidays.

Gilan and Mazandaran in addition to the presence of sea and forest, are the capital of Iranian food and this is another motivation of travel.  Nowruz holidays are considered to be the times that these two provinces are full of travelers and after that, it comes the summer season. Also, weekend holidays are good motivation for traveling to these regions. If you want to know more about the popularity of northern Iran, it is good to mention that from the beginning of Farvardin (March) 2017 to 13th of this month, 1 million and 255 thousand people have traveled to Gilan, a strange but real statistic.

The most tourist attractive cities in Guilan province are Rasht, Masouleh, Fouman, Lahijan, and Langrood. Also Sari, Chalus, Kelardasht, Babolsar, Noor, Mahmoudabad, and Ramsar are the most famous cities in Mazandaran.


Esfahan is a perfect city. You can listen to songs singing under Khaju Bridge, walk on Si-o-se-pol, and watch the beauty of Zayanderud. Isfahan is the city of lovely streets and neighborhoods and pleasant sidewalks. You can pass by Chahar Bagh e Abbasi Street if you want to have a nice walk in history for hours. You can eat great meals in restaurants in the city or please yourself with a drink in its beautiful coffee shops. Spending some time in its traditional bazaar or laying down on Naqshe Jahan greenery and watching the Carriages passing by would be a pleasant experience.

Due to the existence of more than six thousand historical monuments dating back to hundreds and thousands of years, Esfahan is called as “Nesfe Jahan” which means half of the world. Watching Zayanderud and magnificent bridges of Isfahan brings many tourists from different parts of the world to this city. For example, from the beginning of Farvardin (March) 2017 to the early Ordibehesht (April) 2017, 850000 foreign tourists entered Isfahan, which was unprecedented in the last four decades.


Shiraz is the city of gardens, and especially in the spring (the season of blossoming orange trees), its cheerful weather brings lots of travelers to this city. In Shiraz, all the elements are united together to make a delightful travel experience for you. You get fascinated by walking through its gardens like Eram, Qavam, Afif Abad and Jahan. Watching the Persepolis and the magnificence of its pillars is a pleasure that words cannot describe it. The tomb of Hafez and Saadi are attractive not only for Iranians but for all the tourists of other countries. The proof of this claim is the travel of nearly one million foreign tourists since the beginning of the year to Shiraz.

Qeshm Island

In recent years, Qeshm has become one of the tourist cities in Iran, and there is almost no one who does not have a memorial picture with the attractions of this city. Qeshm is the island of wonders and joyful experiences. For example, one can walk among its amazing passages like Chahkooh Canyon or the valley of statues and enjoy all its shapes, corridors, and caverns or walk to the phenomenal forest of Hara, see the construction of giant launches, watch some beautiful creatures for even once in his life, or tasted the best seafood. One of the most popular entertainments of Qeshm is swimming in the sea or camping beside it. The best time for it is from the beginning of Aban (November) to the middle of Farvardin (March).


Tabriz in East Azerbaijan province is the city of firsts, and because of its number of attractions, it is always one of the most famous cities in Iran, especially if the weather is warm and moderate. The city carries the titles of the cleanest city in Iran, the safest city in Iran, the city without beggars and the city of underpasses and overpasses. Tabriz is also the capital of a Persian food called Kabab, and this is one of the motivations of travel for the Iranians who love Kabab. The largest indoor market in the world is located in Tabriz and who does not want to travel to such a great city?